A saving technology: fossilization

1. Inorganic materials and fossilization
2. What is inorganic polymerization?
3. Selection mechanism

 1. Inorganic materials and fossilization
 1.1 Crystalline
   Since 300 years, loose material is sintered into a stone by a hydraulic binder, cement is called CPA (example Ha Tien cement). It’s heated in a furnace to 14500C, combining 90% limestone with 10% clay, become ingots clinker. Grinding clinker becomes powder, then mixing with clean sand and water, calcined limestone dust was bound clay dust, it makes hardening mortar. After 28 days (actually 3 days), the sandstone is formed, known as concrete.

   The fossil was made by a mechanism, called cohesion. Depending on the rate of cement CPA with clean sand, we have called hardness which is known as mac. 1 cement/3 sand which is the hardest mac, concrete is created at 300 mac; 1 cement/ 6 sand which is the softest, low –level work is used 100 mac. Cohesion create three types of minerals, calcium silicate group: alite (1 calcit), belite (2 calcit) and celite (3 calcit). If mixing concrete has calcium too much, then it’s very hard. Crystallization of calcium silicate absorb water very much. It is a characteristic of the fossil.

   Limestone is concentrated in northern Vietnam. That is the focus of cement CPA factories. Northern Vietnam where clean sand is very race. Thus, clean sand and CPA cement must have be saved and used for countryside construction, we should find the best method which solved problem.

   A saving technology which used rural, with four conditions such as
1. A scientific basic
2. Easy, quality is acceptable, no environmental impact
3. Materials are available in rural areas (land issue)
4. And cheaper than cement CPA (intended for urban)

If the farm know a saving technology, farmers will grow the rural, safe environment, surfaces clean and orderly. It is our desire at 20th century but the first 21st century when we began a new job.

1.2 Polymerization
1.2.1 Organic
 From the oil industry is appeared, the petrochemical industrial is also appeared. Plastics was matched, so that we take advantage of waste oil sludge. Scrap is created macromolecular, known as polymers, to draw in the reside. First the raw materials, people make sophisticated products, flood the market, instead of the metal wood, glass …. Addition of rigid, load bearing, strong friction, polymer composites become organic origin.

1.2.2 Types of inorganic
Since 1960, a few inorganic was polymerization by natural, that has been discovered, through tremendous heat source. That is rocks glass (obsidian) in volcanoes, and emerald (type of marble) belong to command group minerals (pyroxene). Since then, artificial glass, called a glass, also a glass stone (artificial) heat treated. Animal bones and wood are as well as polymer, an inorganic source (bone) and an organic source (wood), not through heat treatment. Until 1970, the United States is created polymer sulfur (S), by heating sulfur to 1400C. Since then, the inorganic polymerization process was confirmed by scientific. It is a revolution of geochemistry, because in the past polymerization is appeared of organic materials. Inorganic polymerization increasingly productive diversity.

From 1970 onwards, various methods of preparing a binder with inorganic polymerization was appeared. Many methods are prepared inorganic polymer, such as glass, first vague, now everyone knows that the high temperature inorganic polymerization. In Vietnam, the chemical is changed into rock, but too expensive and unpopular, such as CON-AID, SA44/LS40, PZ:2xx, DESBONCO, ECOCURE21  v.v … therefore, we must have compounds in water in order to able to use cheaper in rural Vietnam.
Polymerization pushed out water to other places, so creating the dry material, the crystallization is need water.

2. What is inorganic polymerization?
2.1 Direct mechanism
It is a mechanism which based on the material magnetic. Professor Plattfort make kaolinite clay mineral into particles magnets.
Kaolinit structure has to sheets are calculated from the negative (-). If using a boiling solution of caustic sodium hydroxide and kaolin, we have a positive sheet (+). Therefore, the clay minerals kaolinite changed into a tiny magnet, with a first negative and first positive one. Materials are stick together, with soil in the surrounding. It is an inorganic composite.
Percentage amount of 4% sodium, and kaolinite in the amount of land accounted for 25%. It is a method which is comprehensive mechanisms and directly, is called direct polymerization

2.2 Indirect mechanism
Fine soil particles and fine particles of materials such as clay has negative charges around the particles, which is the anion nature. If you put the positively charged metal, known as cation, cation – anion will join together, and loose soil is fossilized. At the same time it creates cohesiom by getting coarser cation. Anion – cation – anion chain … is an inorganic or synthetic polymer (inorganic + organic).

 The cheapest metal cation is calcium Ca2+. We can replace calcium with Mg2+, or Fe3+, Al3+ … with conditions increased costs. Wood particles after white ants digest cenluloz substances is also extremely strong cation but there are sources of organic. Wood grain and calcium are considered as cation and synthesis, as the synthetic polymer or composite synthetic very low cost.

3. Selection mechanism: the indirect mechanism

3.1 As for cheaper

Because farmers are demanding construction which is cost lower than cement CPA, so we need a new formula which used above polymer technology. Polymer is not used directly because the cost is too high. Therefore we have chosen polymer indirect which cost is cheap. Despite lower cost so indirect polymer technology is preferred in the world. Technology can used all works. It doesn’t depend soils and can be used in saline soil, alkaline soil, organic soil, sandy hills, land lowland, easy to use in rural areas.

3.2 For easy, non – toxic

The first chemical is easy to follow formula:

            P = f(M+m)tnp

Includes: P is polymerization, M is mixed with soil, m is the fact setting latex, t is mix well, and p is the compression strength n is dried and drying. This formula is found for 10 years and is applied successfully for 4 years: all of 14 years. The substance is often used as salts, to inexpensive solution, non – toxic to the environment.

Mixing soil and lime account for 1-5%, maximum of 10% is non – toxic materials. Limestone soil mixed available non – toxic, which effective in rapidly frozen, then the lime to harden slowly, ending the freeze within 300 days when can be from 100 – 200 Mac.

3.3 The way of indirect polymerization

3.3.1 Components

Indirect polymerization process, we used materials in place. Land includes two parts: the inert and the polymerization. If land has the inert ingredients such as sand mounds, basalt soil, we must add at least 20% on clay, if the soil is composed which is been polymerized such as clay and emulsions, we must add 30% sand magazine which made polymer durable, high friction. Part inert (sand and mud) is made as the main material. While the polymerization (emulsion of clay and colloidal silica) are aggregated. Process is made for a good result petrified.

The best soil include of main material 50% and 50% aggregate.

3.3.2 Land loose soil

In our country where is polymerization 90% and 10% have clay soil or sandy for a good results. Our country has many clay. There is little clay soil particles in place by polymerization. Soil is polymerization by a lot of method, spontaneously activated.