Cement crystals and polymer cement

  1. Construction adhesives
  2. Cement crystals
  3. Polymer cement
  4. Summarize

1.      Construction adhesives

1.1  Purpose

In the construction industry, in order to some disconnected material into hard rock, known as concrete, we need a binder. Disconnected materials are part of supporting power and part of non – supporting power. Binder to create certainty, with the load as expected, does not decay in the high – intensity.

History of the construction industry, people use calcium first, mixed with sand and clay. It is the most common binder. Then, the Roman engineers who mixed fine powder of volcanic ash with lime, created Puzolan cement. British burned clinker (including clay and limestone) which created Portland cement, used present. Century 21st 1 is the time when develop polymer cement.

1.2  Standard real

1.2.1        Cheap, high adhesion

First, customer need low costs. But cheap cost must be accompanied by high quality. Two conditions appeared CPA cement: 1000d/kg, this is a cheap cement, high quality better than limes, puzolan cement and many others. If there is some cement cheaper than cement CPA, that’s what people expect.

1.2.2        Wet or dry

Much adhesive is in liquid form, is very expensive but low quality. Puzzoland cement and lime cement cheap, but quality is low. Cement CPA such as Ha Tien cement, a dry powder as lime and puzolan, but it’s high quality. So far, this is relatively cheap cost. Cement CPA have some drawbacks. Fast freeze in the water when is finely ground but finely ground too much so they swing back quickly dying (freezing in the humid air of our country) it is called lower life expectancy. Polymer cement is more finely ground more better.

1.2.3        Fast or slow freezing

CPA cement can hard very fast for several hours so the mortar incomplete. So, back to the speed brake by adding 3% CaSO4, increase production costs.

1.2.4        Long or short life expectancy

As mentioned above, the life of the CPA cement is a time for self – hardening in the air. Fine, the particle diameter is 80 micromet, CPA cement die in 20 days when exposed to the wind. It is a moderate life. If finely ground to 40 micromet  in diameter, life is a few days. Organic polymer cement of cure is slow, suitable but hardness isn’t as well as inorganic polymer cement.

1.2.5        Easy or difficult to implement

CPA cement is easy workability, due to hard dough from dry powder and water. Other types of cement needed one or more chemical additives, emulsion or powder. So the polymer product which should produce from a company rather than from an individual. However, high – quality hard as CPA cement but cost is low and in half, so it is the most attractive of inorganic polymer cement.

  1. Crystallized cement

2.1  Prepare

CaCO2 (90%) limestone are ground with clay or shale (10%) and then calcined at 14500C which in order to create a substance called clinker with pure, shining. This is one Ca silicate, silicate and silicate Ca 3, Ca 2 (ie, alite and celite, belite) hardened after 3-4 hours. It is a cement hydrated used with excess water balance, when it is soaked much then higher hardness.

Weakness of the CPA cement isn’t hardened cement in the clay, which hardened in the water. It does not suitable to salt water, organic and acidity. It suitable to organic clean rives sand and fresh water.

2.2  Using: hard water

Advantage of CPA cement is hard in the water, so CPA cement used to build the best bridge. Second weakness is hard too fast, hardness is made slow down. Method make cement quick drying, water loss by means of mixing additives into. The first, type is a mix of 3% CaSO4. It absorbs water quickly and make the cement shortage, slow cure. The second type is a mix with an emulsion type which pushed out as well. This is a type of polymer, making the hardening cement because it is accompanied by polymer.

2.3  Advantages and disadvantages

2.3.1        Advantages

So, CPA cement has advantage of creating hydraulic binder used by clean and water. A advantage is the normal stiffness, cost cement low compared to other methods, approximate 1000d/kg. Third advantage is dry, easy to transport, blend and long preserved. Using in water or air, is not harmful to the environment and users.

2.3.2        Disadvantages

But disadvantage is too much and it needs to be overcome. First, arable land don’t use CPA cement, because organic is abundant. It is only suitable to clean sand which is the main substance. Ratio is mixed cement with water (100% humidity) which is plus three clean sand and rough, creating stiffness mac 300, if the additive, it will jump to the mac 600. it does not suitable t salt, alum because two elements make weaken the intensity. Sodium is high, that is a problem. Lime in the cement ratio is also a problem.

2.3.3        Conclusions

Until late 1990, Portland cement or other types of CPA cement are linked by crystalline substance, which the CPA is optimal for all aspects. But then, inorganic polymer cement was discovered, creating fierce competition on the word, it competes with cement CPA. So what is polymer cement?

  1. Polymer cement

3.1  Mechanism of inorganic polymer

3.1.1        Direction

From 500 years ago, glass and crystal are called a hyaline solid which people can be made. In the 19th century, when the polarizing microscope was appeared, which used to research glass, it isn’t crystalline material called amorphous. Until electronic microscope illumination over 10.000 times larger, sciences knew structure glass which is a close plaint rope then it is called polymer.

So, the sand change into glass, hardware, hyaline by heating, and it is an inorganic polymer of high temperature (12000C – 14000C). In the 70s of the 20th century, American scientist pulp sulfer (S) into a fiber by heating at 1400C, instead of at 14000C as glass. This is the first man – made inorganic polymer at room temperature. Later, the late 90s, scientist Plattfort created tiny magnetic particles by mixing kaolin with soda. Materials attracts to each other and turned to stone kaolin. This is directly polymer. There was several more in the same form, so building materials became more plentiful and cheaper than. It is an important chemical issues in the 21st century: chemistry of nanoscale materials.

3.1.2        Indirection

In the 50s of the 20th century, scientists established the link to lime with the hard clay. They found that through the electronic microscope, petrified of the clay because structure of clay solid has a strong fibers, woven together, which they called entolime. Later, in the 21st century, we realized that it is the fiber – polymer clay – calcareous clay – limestone, with length was more than 10.000 times molecules of clay. Hardening is an inorganic polymerization at room temperature. It happened during the 300 days handle and appears when clay pushed all water soaked inside. Process ends when the dry clay and no change pastes in water. So polymerization of clay to reverse when the CPA is the essence of cement: the polymerization step to go out, while the crystallization of water absorption into the water to crystallize inside. So, how to push water soaked? Between clay and limestone particles, two thin films have 0.2 micrometers think. When thin film of water is lost, the clay particles and magnetic particles with a negative capital (land) and positive (lime), to stick together add 30% more power, as the polymer (entroline). If you want to push water away from the seeds soaked tiny, there should be compression (high as you can then) and need to dry or drying.

3.1.3        Advantages and disadvantages: Advantages

Why inorganic and brick not baked are invented? Because there is abundant material, no impact environment. At the same time that nanotechnology between the particles had a magnetic attraction, without any other force. Ultimately this is to get materials in site, reducing transport costs. Material have negative magnetic such as clay and pozoland substance which are most abundant materials, such as lime, iron oxide, magnesium are rich and easy to find, in that lime is the cheapest material. Lower cost is also a significant advantage, when soil and water in site which have rich organic, salinity, alum were used by three elements are mixed, compressed, drying. But cost reduction is not accompanied by lower quality. For the low road, this has been done in the development countries. On the lower soil in place, on a roadway with tar or oil emulsion. For building materials, which gradually create new products such as bricks, tiles and head do not burning, lower cost classical is 50%.

Strengthened with time, inert with extreme weather, withstand temperatures over 10000C, do not disintegrate in saltwater environment, acid …. It was the best advantage of polymer cement. These properties are rarely co – exist in a kind of adhesive which appear on the market. Disadvantages

Difficult to transport water additives. Construction should be in dry condition. Ideal condition is constructed in environment temperature over 200C.

  1. Review

4.1  Crystal cement/ polymer cement

Before the appearing of cheap polymer cement, use local materials so CPA cement have a competition, because cement is crystallized the concept of classical, polymer cement is belong to a new concept progress. However, the urbanization trend is to use cement CPA, but the trend of polymer cement will win and overcome in the future.

Overtime, inorganic polymer cement will combine with organic glue, which is organic polymer, to increase the hardness of the cement polymer and fire up the organic glue. At the same time, additives will release, low cost, to make the polymer cement may be completed and used in areas where CPA cement isn’t use.

4.2  Direct polymer cement/ indirect polymer cement

So far, directly polymer cement and indirectly polymer cement have the antagonists, but not too stiff. The reason that direct cement is more expensive indirectly cement. Addition material of indirectly cement is richer than directly cement. Materials of indirect cement are clay. Lime and other additives is bring, but with a small amount, with the presence of lime, we change clay into the polymer cement by we have done historically. Later we will made the clay cement by we bring in a bag includes clay plus lime, and put out trash mixed with soil three times in place, to build. It was a dream come true growing.

4.3  Choice

There are three points to choose form

-          The first is cheap and quality guarantee: should select the polymer cement.

-          The second is fast cure time, creating strength soon.

-          The third was tight durable: only the polymer cement is more durable CPA cement.

So, with a quality basic is mechanism that is magnetic, different crystalline firing mechanism polymer cement is a great promise in the future.

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