1. Introduction: what is fossilization?

1.1  Loose material is petrified

In theory, there have 3 steps

-          Concentrating and mixing

-          Loose material is compressed, bulk is reduced

-          Cementation

The phenomenon is called the diagenesis, which is created a binder in order to bind together the loose, called cement. Cement is made up of loose material in place or other places. Geological time is created process.

1.2  Humid environment and dry environment

Humid environment is created cementation process because crystallization cement with water occur in the hydrosphere, including rain water. Dry environment occurs in the dry conditions, when water pressure and heat rise soaring. Dry environment appears that create material polymerization when the negative charge and positive charge are bound together by form force. Polymerization natural have created inorganic binder and organic, or both. Since polymerization made up composite material as a kind of artificial stone is very useful.

  1. Result of the fossilization because cement is crystal in water

In natural, there are a lot of cement binder loose material, which made into rock. This is the carbonate, hidroxid, silicates, etc … such as
    -           CaCO3
   -           Ca(OH)2
   -           Fe(OH)3
   -           CaSiO2, MgSiO2, etc …

The crystallization of this material occurred in the water, when crystal is crystallized, process created a large of water n.H2O that created the crystallization. If water is supplied slow, then cement is dried and speed down. For example, cement is crystallized in 100 years, they must wait several hundred years. Man imitate natural in order to make Portland cement (XMP) which composed of limestone and clay at 14500C. XMP is a calcium silicate, excess water make crystallize XMP which create hard glue to stick loose material such as sand, grit, creating a concrete.

Process is changed the stiffness of XMP, from several hours become 2 day which builder shape easy, when concrete mixed with lignin, thus XMP can be draw water gradually and result is concrete stronger.

Concrete is made by XMP, which is crystallized in excess water. It is the crystallize of the wet environment.

  1. Fossilization is made by dehydrated cement polymer

For dry environment, XMP completed inert. Dry environment keep XMP which has long term “dead”. In dry environment, macromolecular are created, such as polymer, in order to negative materials and positive material are bonded by force. Many soils have negative magnetism such as kaolin, many materials have positive magnetism such as calcarea Ca(OH)2. Mixing of calcarea and soil, which can combine by force create style polymer:

 – clay soil – Ca – clay soil – Ca –

Strong structure Polymer is wraparound an inert substance which made of concrete. Type polymerization is called indirect, because molecules bounden together. Directly polymer has type atom, or a different type which are bounden molecules. For example, US scientists have created the single sulfur atom (S) making stick together into fibers at 1400C. Belgian scientists make kaolin mineral into magnets which attract each other. Directly polymer is harder than indirectly polymer so in the trade producers choose indirectly polymer which linked inorganic process, creating inorganic concrete, is called inorganic composite, different organic composite, inorganic concrete made with organic colloids, such as formaldehyde, expoxy, acryloite, melanin, which is the organic polymer.

  1. Fossilization is caused by cement crystal dry.

The environment is outside hydrospheric environment, from the ground down 100km, environment becomes dry. Depending on the compression and heating elements. At this time, the crystallization dry appears, no water molecules. Dehydrating environment is come of hoop, 0.2 μ thick, which is wrapped sedimentary particles, it becomes naked and stick to each other. For example SiO2 molecular, if crystallization has water, then it change crystal agate, which main component is SiO2. In the case of the dry crystals, crystallization made molecules of quartz crystals, creating type polymer is – O – Si – O – O – Si – O –. There aren’t molecules that is macromolecular Si, it’s 10.000 times as many as Si molecular. Quartz crystallization is process above so rock is become hard, which harder than sand rock, is called corneous or quartz stone. The phenomenon which created rock, is called metamorphism, due to strong compression and heating (over 10000C). If the pressure and heating better than before, which crystallization needn’t water, it makes corindon with form emori, equivalent to saphia, ruby and spinel in the earth (in mantle and lower mantle). Al2O mineral is crystallized form network firm, established the formula is two aluminum surrounded by three oxygen.

This is a process, which make oxygen metal, this is the way metal mine forming.

  1. Summary

We have 3 steps which adhesive materials

-          Step 1: crystallization in water, until the end of underground water in the casing soil volumes.

-          Step 2: polymerization in dry environment, until the end of environment of the lithosphere

-          Step 3: dry crystalline lithosphere at the bottom, which have entire natural of metamorphic.

From land to inside earth, the crystals is in dry environment, between 100km and 300km for spinel, xaphia and ruby. But until 400km where appear diamonds, crystallized at a depth of high minerals, creating a unique single crystal element C. From network crystal C to network crystal diamonds has degenerated.




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